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The article Multi-Objective Techno-Economic-Environmental Optimisation of Electric Vehicle for Energy Services” (MOTEEO), has been published in the journal Applied Energy. Until 12/12/2019 you can read the article for free at


  • Optimisation of energy cost, battery degradation, grid utilisation and CO2 emission.
  • The conflicts among objectives were addressed with multi-objective optimisation.
  • A multi-criteria decision making process was tailored to the stakeholders.
  • Frequency regulation provision was overall profitable for electric vehicle owners.
  • The decision makers must cooperate to achieve societal benefits.
Multi-Objective techno-economic-environmental optimisation framework, from the article 



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